The façade of the Church of the School of the Cardinal, herreriana or roman?

María Rivo Vázquez, in his work on the façade of the School of the Company, with the guarantee of the Universidade of Santiago of Compostela, affirm that: ?Although of unquestionable sustrato clasicista herreriano, the façade eclesial of the School of Monforte is revestida of a manierismo that, without desbocarse, sobrepasa the field strictly ornamental of almohadillados, tips of diamond and forms enrolladas. The split of the frontón, the brusca finalización of the cornice of the cover and, especially, the inexacta superposición of them bear merman the structural clarity typical of the façades previñolescas. Like this pues, could aventurar the hypothesis of an initial design controlled essentially by Vermondo Subtracts, author more italianizante and next to the manierismo that Ruiz.


Façade of the church herreriana of San Lorenzo del Escorial

In the changes that deduce of the fold of conditions perhaps had a paper highlighted Juan of Tolosa. In fact the fault of correspondence between them bear of the first and second body could owe, more that to a conscious licence proper of the manierismo, to a desajuste fruit of modifications entered by a least expert teacher, such time Tolosa. Besides, the sustitución of the corintio by dórico and jónico and the elimination of a óculo that owed to occupy a central place, suggest a subtle deviation to an aesthetics more herreriana from solutions italianizantes.

A path that well could go of Subtract to Tolosa. In any case, does not fit doubt that Serlio and Vignola are the key sources of the façade. The footprint of the façade of the church of the School of the Cardinal in the architecture gallega is practically irrelevant. Bonet Mentions emulaciones of his friso with metopas of circles gallonados in the churches of Monfero, Oseira, Saint Vicente of the Pino of Monforte and Saint Bartolomé of Pontevedra, this last also calm jesuítica; and go in Oseiray Saint Vicente the presence of other architectural elements of the School Monfortino, although worse articulated. Like this pues, treat of an of the few samples of classicism herreriano in Galicia that, however, seems to have been “temperada” to conciliate manierismo and classicism, romanismo and herrerianismo, and, in definite, adapt to circumstances, people and places -and Saint Ignacio prescribed to his supporters- inside an Order cuya structure jerárquica, however, never left to be roman centrical.?

The Architect Jesuita JUAN FERNÁNDEZ OF BUSTAMANTE (CA. 1560-1606)

Capitel Corintio Church of Lantadilla (Palencia)

The now known data about Juan Fernández of Bustamante allow us reconsider his professional path, as tracista of works. It has documented his intervention in Villagarcía of Fields, Salamanca (primitive School), Oviedo, Palencia, Segovia, School of Nª Sª of the Ancient in Monforte of Lemos, Medina of the Field (School of Saint Pedro and Saint Pablo) and Autillo of Fields, but in none has considered him like his tracista, but so alone like sobrestante, veedor, tasador, expert or administrator.

Juan Fernández of Bustamante is born to 1560 in Villamayor of Treviño (Burgos)12 and ingresa in 1577 in the School jesuita of Burgos, in which remains until his course to the School salmantino, in which presumably will know to the father Andrés Ruiz. Seem that the training of the jesuita burgalés to the shadow of Andrés Ruiz is more that likely. The main part of the works in which Juan Fernández of Bustamante appears documented are to charge of Andrés Ruiz of the one who doña Catalina of Zúñiga, nephew of the founder of the School of Monforte of Lemos, said: ?teacher zorro and knows more of architecture of cuantos there is in the Company?. It describes him in 1584 like man ?of buen wit, trial, prudence, quite a lot of experience, flemático, melancholic. It has talent for architecto?.

Capitel Corintio Church of Lantadilla (Palencia)

To Juan Fernández of Bustamante documents him taking part between 1584 and 1590 in the works of the Houses of the Company of Salamanca, Segovia, Palencia and, after dying Andrés Ruiz (1596), directing the work of Monforte of Lemos beside Juan of Tolosa, remaining he only ahead of the same to the death of this (1600).

In Monforte, Fernández of Bustamante realizes the valuation of all the built in the School in the year 1600, figurando then like Main Teacher after the demise of Juan of Tolosa and with agreement to them trace and conditions that had been given by Andrés Ruiz and Veremondo Subtracts in 1594 to the Cardinal Rodrigo of Castrate.

Seem that it is to initiative of Fernández of Bustamante the use of the capitel corintio that it is the used in the interior of the Church of the School of Nª Sª of the Ancient of Monforte of Lemos (Lugo) that attributed to the hand of the cantero Rozadilla. The same style of capiteles can see in the church of Santa Cruz of Medina of Rioseco, of Lantadilla, in Our Sir of the Street (Palencia), in the interior of the church colegial of Segovia, and in the Cathedral of Valladolid under the direction of Fernández of Bustamante.

Capitel Corintio Inner of the Church of O. L. of the Ancient Monforte of Lemos

THE STREET OF THE CARDINAL INITIATIVE OF D. RODRIGO de CASTRO

The considerable dimensions of the School that thought build in Monforte of Lemos did not allow that the helmet amurallado of the villa could receive it in his interior, by what decides build it in the suburb, in the vicinities of the way that drives to the Chapel of Saint Lázaro, a place occupied by huertas and vineyards that was necessary to buy. During the years 1591-92 begin the acquisitions of the terrains, taking part as intermediario the Earl D. Fernando Ruiz of Castro.

The extension purchased rondaba the nine hectares and average, establishing his limits the river Cabe, the brook of Saint Lázaro, communal terrains and particular properties his big importance has the election of the solar, transcendental is the confección of them trace and conditions and, related directly with this, the designación of the proyectistas. In spite of the absence of data that esclarezcan this phase, fits to think that it was the Cardinal, jealous founder and financiador, the one who, far of desentenderse of such labor, takes part in them trace and conditions, choosing concienzudamente to the architects and avoiding that nothing neither anybody altered his intentions.

In 1594 the arrival of the Cardinal to Monforte takes place to ends of July or
principles of August. Contemplating the location of his work, decides the projection of
a street of 30 feet of width that communicate directly with the villa. To ends of
1595 already is «almost finished and comes to remain the school the half more near, and she is so beautiful that suffices for ennoblecer a place».

By what have already the reason and the date of the planteamiento and the building of the street of the cardinal, that if it is not very long, himself that has converted in the axis of the social life of Monforte.

THE SQUARE OF THE COMPANY COULD BE THE MAIN SQUARE OF MONFORTE

Gift Manuel Angel Feal Antelo, in his work end of Master titled: THE SCHOOL OF THE CARDINAL OF MONFORTE OF LEMOS. EVOLUTION OF IT TRACES UNIVERSAL , collects in a text of the period, the will of the Cardinal Rodrigo of Castrate on the today called Square of the Company or of the Escolapios. The text says like this: ?the considerable surface cedida was to his time donada by the Cardinal to the School so that in her could manufacture houses with the condition to «leave free the square conforme to what takes the façade and leading … And leaving free the passo and street by it gives square like agora the this»

In a first moment fits to think that such suggestion had in account, pues in the «annuas» of 1596 collect that «I leave space to manufacture some houses (the casitas) in where habitasen our students in the field that gave the City council in front of the School. And since the villa remained distant, these houses would serve of big help to the students».

Having in account that the building in himself already is a focus atrayente so that the population extend by his alrededores, if it had allowed build in the limits of the square, possibly would be in front of the «main square» of the villa. The document of donación of the terrain in front of the façade, of 1593, says like this(the text written in a Spanish ancient does not translate ):

  « como su ss Yllma el arcobispo y Cardenal por hazer bien y merceda la dha villa, concejo y vs della, y a los demas comarcanos mandaba hazer yedificar una yglesia colesio y hescuelas en el sitio questa junto a la puente sanlazara a donde se enseñase la gramatica y otras ciencias de los padres de la conpañiade Jesus y por que la dha yglesia colesio y hescuelas, hestaba todo hello rrematadoen mahestros de canteria y para quel dho colesio tubiese en la fachada y delantera plaza, y hestubiese desabasado y para ello tenia nescesidad de Placa para lo que su ss” Yllma fuese serbido, y por que en la delantera de la dha iglesia y colesio y casa, abia una plaza y azayal que les pedia en nombre de su ss” Yllmale diesen cediesen y dexasen a su ss” Yllma quinientos pies de largo, alrrededor de la dha fachada dela yglesia y colesio y hescuelas desquina a hesquina y quatrocientos pies de ancho por el dho azayal adelante atento que hera en utilidad y probecho de la dha villa y concejo…. y entendido por la dha Justicia, y rregimiento y procurador general… ..dixeron que por la mejor bia y forma que podian y debían y de derecho abia mejor lugar cedian y traspasaban y donaban y rrenunciaban a su  Yllma el dho señor cardenal y arcobispo, la dha plaza y azayal en quantia de quinientos pies de largo en la delantera de la dha yglesia y cassa y colesio y fachada, desquina a hesquina, y quatrocientos pies de largo, por el dho azayal adelante hazia el camino que ba acia Lamande (Amandi) para que su ss” pueda disponer dello a su boluntad…»

JUAN OF BOLONIA AUTHOR OF THE BRONZE FUNERARIO OF THE CARDINAL

JUAN OF BOLONIA

(Douai, Low Countries, 1529-Florencia, 1608). Italian sculptor of Flemish origin. The one who would arrive to be first sculptor in the court of the Médicis decided, to the fourteen years, against of the plans of his father, that loved that it was notary, ingresar in the workshop of Jacques Dubroeucq in Mons. There worked until 1550, year in that decided to travel to Rome to continue his training, where knew the estatuaria ancient and of the first renaissance. When, after two years of learning, went back to his country, retained it in Florencia Bernardo Vecchietti, the one who converted in his mecenas, lodging it in his house and providing him the first encargos. Giambologna Remained in the villa of «Il Riposo» at all least that fourteen years, in which carried out his artistic training. In 1560 presented a model for the contest of the source of Neptuno, in the square of the Signoria, competing with artists of it cuts of Benvenuto Cellini, ¬Baccio ¬Bandinelli and Bartolomeo ¬Ammannati, that was the one who won. However, the following year, 1561, already received a monthly wage of the Médicis, and began to work for the prince Francisco.

Between 1563 and 1567 realized his first monumental work, the source of Neptuno in the city of Bolonia. Then it was called by Cosme of Médicis for esculpir the group of Florencia triunfando on Pisa, to do couple with the Victory, of Miguel Angel. From this moment worked for the family of the big duke during all his life in a workshop enabled in the Palace Vecchio, first, and in the one of Borgo Pinti, afterwards. When, in 1583, installed the group of marble Rapto of a sabina in the Loggia dei Lanzi, there was already arrived to the point culminante of his career. The monuments ecuestres of Cosme I, in the square of the Signoria, and of Fernando I in the one of the Annunziata, were the start of all a series that decorated the main cities of Europe, highlighting between them the portrait of Felipe III, in the Main Square of Madrid.

Giambologna Created a personal style, splitting of the classical sculptures that so much had impressed him during his stay in Rome, characterized by the virtuosismo technical and the deep interest by the study anatómico, the movement and the multiple points of view, that ended in the contrapposto exaggerated and the figure serpentinata. especializó In a wide thematic that ranged from the classical mythology, the alegorías, the portraits, the religious scenes of the Ancient and New Will, until the figures of animals, so much in marble and in bronze and to all the scales. The big activity of his workshop propició the training of sculptors like Pietro Tacca, his successor, Antonio Susini, his first assistant, Pietro Francavilla or Adriaen of Vries, that difundieron his style by the European courts. This fact, joined to that his masters, the Médicis, used his works like obsequios diplomatic to the highest level, contributed of exceptional way to the success of this artist, cuyas works have followed admiring and reproducing until our days.
Of Juan of Bolonia is the statue funeraria of the Cardinal Rodrigo of Castrate, that find in the presbiterio of the Church of Nª Sª of the Ancient. Realized in Bronze.

SAN FRANCISCO OF BORJA AND ITS ICONOGRAPHY

Wifredo Rincón, Doctor of Art history and curator of the exhibition on the iconography of San Francisco de Borja of the Museum of the city of Valencia, says that “despite being such an important character, the existing iconography of San Francisco de Borja in the Spanish artistic panorama is surprisingly scarce.

“The doctor has made these statements in the course of the conference iconography of San Francisco de Borja in Spanish art before the attendees of the International Congress “Francisco de Borja and his time: politics, religion and culture in the modern age” Organized by CEU Cardenal Herrera University and the Higher Council for Scientific Research.

Rincón has pointed out that the iconography of Borja is fundamentally reduced to two spaces: to the houses of the company of Jesus,-as is the case of San Francisco de Borja of the School de Nª s ª of La Antigua-where there is “abundant” iconography of the saint and the province of Valencia, Especially the city of Valencia, Gandía and Llombai. The doctor explained that in the rest of places in Spain there is iconography but it is “scarce” perhaps because Borja “was not a popular saint by coming from a noble family and because after his death, the body was moved to Madrid”.

The historian has made a review of the iconographic aspects of San Francisco de Borja: iconographic type, clothing and attributes and images. Of iconographic type, Rincón has emphasized that the saint has a “recognizable” type because in much of the artistic reproductions of him he “maintains the original profile coming from the funerary mask”.Regarding the attributes and the identification of the saint, the Doctor has referred to the skull, crowned almost always, which refers to the Empress Isabel and that also means the renunciation of the world and that the Saint “always carries on a handkerchief in sign of I respect the Empress. ” The other particular attribute of the saint is the custody to which the saint gazes and represents the defense of the Eucharist. In addition, the Doctor has detailed a “Still life” of attributes that usually accompany him of religious character, like the Mitra, and the Capelos and, of civil character, like the ducal and marquesal crowns and the armour in some cases with the cross of the Order of Santiago. In addition, the historian has referred to Borja’s clothing expressing that Borja has “two aspects”, with the habit of a knight of Santiago and with the habit of the company of Jesus.

In the case of the San Francisco de Borja picture of our church, the attributes that appear are very simple. The skull appears without a crown. Custody appears here replaced by a Christ on the cross at a table in which a sackcloth is guessed. The ducal and marquesal crowns do not appear, only three Capelas cardenalicios symbol of the triple resignation of this dignity.

The monfortino, Mateo Díaz , who studied in the Escolapios, is formed to work in development and will, thanks to the Barrié Foundation, a master’s degree in Sussex.

Mateo Díaz links his future to that of the world. This young monfortino who studied in the Escolapios and in the Daviña Rey is currently in Italy, doing internships in the Spanish representation in the United Nations. It is another step in a career that focuses on work in the international field. He has his sights set on working for the UN or the European Union.

The passion for the world, and above all for justice on Earth, comes from far away to Mateo Díaz, but has deepened as he progressed in his studies. He studied International Relations at the Complutense University and his passion for an area to which he wants to dedicate his life: security and development. These are commitments that the young monfortino lived closely in the Complutense and internalized to turn them into vital objectives.

Now he has just opened a door for him that can help him to clear that future with which he dreams. The monfortino has just obtained one of the coveted postgraduate scholarships of the Barrié Foundation and will be able to go to England to take a master’s degree in Conflict, Security and Development at the University of Sussex.
The studies at that university are in the “premier league”. The center is a world reference in terms of training in cooperation and development, emphasizes the young monfortino, who says that Sussex has an “ambitious and committed” training program. It is just what this twenty-three year old Lucense looks for who believes that development and security programs must be combined, otherwise the policies to advance the world will not be effective.

He is young, but he has already seen some of the most bitter faces of life on Earth and has seen the consequences of political failures and wars. For example, Italy has arrived after spending some time working with refugees in Serbia, where they could learn about the reality of refugees arriving from countries such as Syria, Iran or Pakistan, he explains.

Now in Italy he works in the Spanish mission to the FAO, the United Nations organization for agriculture and food, “a wide and very interesting field”, which allows him to approach the reality of the attention to people in conflict areas.
This accumulation of experiences before starting the master’s degree in Sussex will allow her to reach the United Kingdom with better training and a broader vision, explains Mateo Díaz Rodríguez.

The young monfortino is happy with the possibility of starting those studies in the United Kingdom and do a master’s degree that even in his best dreams he could have studied if not for the Barrié Foundation scholarship, he points out.
It is true that this scholarship is the result of a brilliant academic record, but he says that there were many good students who opted for this scholarship, so he feels honored to have achieved it.

Until the moment of beginning those studies, he will continue to accumulate experience and work on the reality of regions of the world that interest him. In its formation, for example, it has been especially interested in knowing the problems of countries in the Sahel area, such as Nigeria, where the humanitarian situation is often aggravated by the problem of terrorism.

The Christ who did not like Felipe II

Santo Cristo de Valerio Cioli (1529-1599), also author of the statues of Michelangelo’s tomb. Name and date that appear engraved on the bottom of the purity cloth of the image.
  It is made of marble in one piece, except the arms. It emphasizes in him the majestic and serene expression of his face. It was commissioned by Felipe II for El Escorial (Madrid), but he did not like it, considering it too muscular; he gave it to the Cardinal with whom he was joined by a great friend who sent him to Monforte de Lemos.

In its place Philip II placed another marble Christ, in this case Bemvenuto Cellini. Christ that Cellini decided to execute as a fulfillment of a vow inspired by a dream he had in the year 1539, being imprisoned in Castel Sant’Angelo by order of Pope Paul III. According to the artist himself in his memoirs, in that dream he had this vision:

“I looked like this sun without its rays, nothing more nor less than a pure gold liquified bath. While I was contemplating this great thing, I saw begin to inflate in the middle of the sun and grow that form of said bulge, and suddenly form a Christ in cross, of the same substance as the sun. And his beautiful grace was so great and his appearance so benign, that human ingenuity could not imagine a thousandth part. “

After twenty years, the sculptor decided to fulfill his promise, with the intention that the sculpture was placed in his grave. However, by a request of Duke Cosme I de Médici, who saw her in his workshop and proposed to buy it, became part of the collection of the Pitti Palace.

In 1576, the crucifix was given by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francisco I de Médici, to King Philip II of Spain, and sent specially from Florence to “auction his church in San Lorenzo del Escorial.” The Jerónimo of that monastery Antonio de Villacastín describes it like this:

“On November 9, 1576, King Don Felipe, our founder, sent to send the Pardo, where he was present, for a Crucifixion that had arrived there that was sent to him by the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Batista Cabrera then left with fifty men to carry him on his shoulders, and this was done. San Lorenzo el Real arrived here on Saint Crucifixo on the eve of San Martín, November 11 of that year. He stood in the Chapter, in the doorway, until his Majesty dictates otherwise. Note: that the one who made this Christ wrote a book that is entitled Benevenuto Celino, in the way that it should be to work in marble, in which book deals with the work he had in labralle and the curiosity that ended him and how is the first piece of crucifix that has been carved to this day. He also has the said book out of two sonnets in Tuscan, admirable.”

After a restoration of the year 1994, the Christ was placed in the chapel of the Doctors, on the left side of the foot of the Basilica, continuing modestly covered with a cloth since the Christ is absolutely naked to the Renaissance taste.



How long did the construction of the College of the Cardinal last?

School of Nª Sª de la Antigua.

In the doctoral thesis entitled “Methodological and compositional process of the Renaissance in Galicia. 1499-1657 “, whose author is D. Víctor Grande Nieto, simple data are given that clarify the time that lasted the construction of the School of Nª Sª de la Antigua. The concrete text is the following:

“Receiving the plans of the College, made by the Jesuit Andrés Ruiz, made the Cardinal to see the teacher Vermundo Resta, whose name appears linked to Ruiz as coauthors of the College initiating the signature of the Contract of 1592, but Vermundo himself was in Seville in 1592, being his contribution as master teacher of works of the Sevillian miter5 what made him be an advisor to Don Rodrigo in this factory, making certain changes, but without his being a predominant role in terms of the general conception of School.
With the arrival of Juan de Tolosa and later of Simón de Monasterio the initial traces of the set will be modified.
The main part of the construction was developed between 1593 and 1619: the church, the main facade and part of the bodies that are articulated around two patios placed on both sides of the church are finished. Then the works stopped and practically nothing new was built until 1919, date in which two cloistered canvases were finished and new dependencies were made in the back. “

Illustrious alumni: Francisco Javier Elola and Díaz Varela

Francisco Javier Elola and Díaz Varela

He was born in Monforte de Lemos, on September 22, 1877, dying in Barcelona, ​​May 12, 1939) was a magistrate, prosecutor, jurist and Spanish politician.
He studied at the College of Nª Sª de la Antigua, PP. Escolapios de Monforte de Lemos. He graduated in Law from the University of Santiago de Compostela in 1903, and in 1905 he approved the examinations of prosecutor and judge. After the proclamation of the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera in 1923 he was appointed member of the Organizing Board of the Judiciary, where he gained great prestige as a specialist in criminal and procedural matters. In 1924 he was appointed judge of the Chamberí district and in 1929 he represented Spain in the International Criminal Conferences of Paris, Brussels and Budapest.

In spite of his past linked to the primoriverist dictatorship, on May 31, 1931 he was appointed Prosecutor of the Republic, although he resigned on July 31 to be appointed magistrate of the Supreme Court of Spain. In the general elections of 1931 he was elected deputy for the Radical Republican Party in the province of Lugo. In the Spanish Cortes he participated in all the discussions about the organization of the judicial power in Spain, which would confront his party, which would end up abandoning. He did not stand for election in 1933 and continued as Magistrate of the Supreme Court.

Since the Civil War began, on August 26, 1936 he was appointed president of the Third Chamber of Contentious Administrative Matters of the Supreme Court of Spain, and on September 16 he was appointed Special Examining Judge of the cause for the insurrection in all the barracks and military cantons of Madrid. In the instruction he kept the legal formalities, which did not please the extremists, who demanded an exemplary punishment of the coup plotters, to the point that he was removed from the investigation for having admitted from General Joaquin Fanjul Goñi the evidence he had proposed. On August 27, 1937, he was appointed President of the Court Inspection Board of Madrid. In October 1937 he moved to Catalonia, where in June 1938 he defended the officials of the Courts of Barcelona accused of fifth columnism.

When the republican troops left Catalonia in January 1939, he decided to stay and offered to collaborate with the new regime, but was arrested and on February 26 was prosecuted for the death of General Fanjul and the deaths in prison Model Madrid on 23 August 1936. He was condemned to death and executed in Barcelona on May 12, 1939 together with General Fernando Berenguer de las Cagigas